What are kidney stones? What are its symptoms and various treatment options?

What are kidney stones? What are its symptoms and various treatment options?

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    What are kidney stones?

    Kidney stones are small solid masses made of crystals. These are also known as renal calculi. As the name suggests, kidney stones are formed in the kidneys. Although, their origin can occur in any part of the urinary tract, which includes:

    • Bladder
    • Urethra
    • Ureters
    • Kidneys

    It is important to seek medical help from the best urologist in Punjab, who can provide a customized treatment approach as per your condition. If you are diagnosed with kidney stones or not able to get effective treatment, then consult our best urologist in Moga. It is one of the painful conditions which need treatment on time.

    What are the types of kidney stones?

    Kidney stones are made of different materials and it includes the following:


    Calcium Stones are common and it is a combination of calcium oxalate. In such condition, you need to eat less oxalate-rich food like:

    • Spinach
    • Chocolate
    • Peanuts
    • Potato chips
    • Beets

    Uric acid

    Uric acid kidney stone prevalence is higher in men as compared to women. In addition, its chances are higher if you have got chemo or have gout. You should reduce the consumption of meat, shellfish, and fish,


    Struvite kidney stones are common in women who have UTIs and these can occur due to kidney infection. In such conditions, the stone is large and it affects the urine flow. It is important to get treatment for infection.


    Cystine kidney stones are rare and they can occur in men & women. Those with a genetic disorder are at higher risk.

    How to look out for the signs and symptoms of kidney stones?

    As we have already mentioned, kidney stones are a painful condition so timely treatment is necessary. It is possible, symptoms do not occur till the time stone goes down to the ureters. In medical terms, severe pain is referred to as renal colic. Sometimes, pain can occur in the abdomen and back. It is possible the pain can reach the groin area. The condition can make the person feel restless. Some of the additional symptoms are:

    • Chills
    • Fever
    • Vomiting
    • Nausea
    • Blood in the urine (red, pink, or brown urine)
    • Discolored or foul-smelling urine
    • Urgent need to urinate
    • Urinating small amounts of urine

    If the kidney stones are small, then it won’t result in pain or symptoms as the stone will pass through the urinary tract on its own.

    Why is kidney stone a problematic medical condition?

    In some cases, kidney stones can pass through the urinary tract, especially the small ones. Sometimes, they are too large that they can lead to spasms and ureters irritation. This will lead to blood in the urine. It is possible that urine flow is blocked which is referred to as urinary obstruction. In the worst-case situation, it can lead to kidney damage and kidney infection.

    What are the tests done to diagnose kidney stones?

    • Physical Examination
    • Medical history assessment
    • Blood tests for uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, and electrolytes
    • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine to assess kidney function
    • Urinalysis to check for bacteria, blood, crystals, and white cells
    • Examination of passed stones to check the type
    • Ultrasound of the kidney (the preferred test)
    • MRI scan of the abdomen and kidneys
    • Abdominal CT scan
    • Abdominal X-rays
    • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
    • Retrograde pyelogram

    What are the treatment options for kidney stones?

    The doctor will determine your treatment plan by checking your history and results of the test. The urologist will get the urine sample to strain it and collect the stones for evaluation.

    You should drink 6 to 8 glasses of water a day to increase urine flow. If a person feels nausea and vomiting, in such cases intravenous fluids are needed. Here is the list of the treatment options suggested by the urologist:

    • Medication – Might be needed for pain relief
    • Lithotripsy – Shock wave is used to break the large stones
    • Tunnel surgery (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) – Stones are removed through a small incision made in the back
    • Ureteroscopy – It is suggested when the stone is stuck in the bladder or ureter.

    What are the necessary measures for kidney stone prevention?

    Ideally, it is necessary to keep yourself properly hydrated which is an important measure. Around 2.6 quarts of urine pass every day. This helps to pass the flush through the kidneys.

    If you have kidney stones or are at risk of kidney stones, then it is better to get help on time and get an effective treatment plan which is for your condition.

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