Male infertility

wHAT IS Male infertility?

Failure to conceive might be connected to the infertility of the male. Let us see the common forms of male infertility –

Asthenospermia (Low Sperm Motility)

It is the name given to the condition in which the sperms are less motile than the normal. Less than 50 % of sperm motility is known as Oligo-asthenia. The condition in which the sperms are immobile is called asthenospermia. Male infertility treatment in moga is readily available. Male infertility treatment is done in accordance to the causes of the condition

Causes

There are various causes of low sperm motility

The deficit of sperm-producing hormones

This may occur due to the deficiency of hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Many syndromes like  Moon-Beidl syndrome Prader-Willi syndrome, Frohlich syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and  Noonan syndrome may cause it.

Testicular disorders

  • Hypogonadism
  • Problems in the chromosomal structure
  • Defects in the synthesis of androgen
  • Consumption of Drugs (cytotoxic drugs, ketoconazole, cimetidine, spironolactone).
  • Partial obstruction in the flow of sperms from the testis to the penile opening. This condition is also known as obstructive oligospermia.
  • Varicocele:  It is the condition in which the scrotal vein dilates which causes an increase in the testicular temperature and decreased sperm motility.
  • Autoimmunity -It means the presence of anti-sperm antibody. These bind with the sperm and make them less motile, immotile or dead.
  • Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism) : Sometimes the testicles don’t descend from the abdomen to the lower part of the scrotum. This leads to increased temperatures in the scrotum, which leads to low sperm production.

Other conditions like  Mosaic Klinefelter’s syndrome or mumps may lead to the condition. Partial Spermatogenic arrest, chromosomal abnormality or alcohol use can also cause the condition

Diagnosis

History & Physical Examinations:

he male hormonal system is studied. It includes a detailed check-up of all the hormones which contribute to the testicular activity and sperm production. The tests of LH, FSH, Testosterones, prolactin, and thyroid test are conducted.

1) Male hormone profile check :  All the male hormone tests  are conducted .These hormones  control testicular development and functions including normal sperm Productions. The tests include L.H., F.S.H., Testosterones, prolactin, thyroid test, & other relevant hormone tests depending on history & examinations.

2) USG or Doppler study of scrotum & testis

3)  Antisperm antibody

4) Semen culture sensitivity

5) Semen fructose

6) Immunobead test

7) Sperm Function Tests

8) Genetic Studies

9) Human Sperm-Zona Pellucida Pentration test

10)Human Sperm-Zona Pellucida Binding Ratio

11) FNAC Testis

12) Egg penetration test

13) Molecular genetic studies

14) Sperm Function Tests

This test analyses the ability of the sperm to fertilize the egg. These tests are performed very rarely.

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Treatment

Treatment of male infertility is undertaken in accordance with the causes detected. It obviously contains the correction of the causes.

1) Treatment of Hormone deficiencies: If the hormones are the basis of the problem, then their activity is corrected through various therapies. It usually starts showing results in three months times.

2) Gonadotropin Therapy: Gonadotropins are natural stimulators of sperm production. With this therapy, the sperm-producing cells are stimulated in the testis. The Gonadotropins stimulate the cells to produce sperms with normal motility.

3) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) analogs8) Growth hormone therapy is given in a case where somatrop deficiency is the cause.

4) Free Radical Scavengers: If the antioxidants in the testis are causing the condition, then these drugs come handy in scavenging the free radicals, thereby increasing sperm production and motility.

5) Antisperm antibody  Treatment is undertaken by using intrauterine insemination, steroid therapy, intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

6) Surgery: A surgery may be performed according to the cause of the condition. Varicocele or blockage of the track between the testis and the penis tip may also be corrected by it. Endocrine tumors are also corrected by it.

7)  Intra-uterine insemination: IUI involves selection of motile sperms and transfer to the uterine cavity of the female partner.

8)  Test tube baby or IVF involves the technique of ICSI and embryo transfer to the uterus of the woman.

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